Fish parasites harmful to humans and how to overcome them
Today it has become fashionable in the preparation of fish to use as little salt, smoke and heat can (sushi, raw fish salad with vinegar and spices). According to fans, so preserved the natural taste of the product. And natural parasites, add-parasitologists doctors. Many people can not even guess that they are infected - the symptoms are very similar to allergies, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and liver.
Than you can get sick from the fish?
Here are the most common:
Pathogen - Siberian fluke. worms size - 7-12 mm. parasitize in the gallbladder, bile ducts of the liver and pancreas. Along with the man opistorhisov can parasitize many carnivores: fox, arctic fox, sable ferrets. The most common carriers Opisthorchis are cats. In addition to these main hosts in the development of the parasite involves two intermediates, the first of which - small freshwater shellfish Bithyniidae snails, and the second - any fish of the carp family (ide, bream, dace, roach, tench, rudd, bream, nase, chub, carp ).
If after 5-6 weeks, the affected fish will be eaten by human or carnivore, then after 10-12 days, penetrated into the bile ducts of the liver or the gallbladder Opisthorchis larvae reach sexual maturity and begin to lay eggs. Parasite development from egg to sexually mature worm lasts for 4-5 months.
Manifestations of the disease. Begins 2-3 weeks after eating fish uncleared. If contracted for the first time: weakness, headache, fever up to 38-40 degrees, nausea, vomiting, pain in the right upper quadrant, the bitterness in the mouth, intolerance to fatty foods. In chronic course parasites have not so loudly declare themselves, although they continue their dirty deed. Clonorchiasis.
Pathogen - Chinese fluke. Pass a fish caught in the Amur and its tributaries, reservoirs China, Korea, Vietnam: stone moroko, hemiculter, gudgeon, crucian carp, carp, bitterling, Amur ide etc. disease manifestations:.. Temperature, skin rash, liver enlargement.
Diphyllobothriasis - defeat broad tapeworm.
In the human gut of larvae worm grows 8-12 m long or more. The parasite can live in the body of 10-20 years. The source of infection: perch, ruff, pike, burbot, Far Salmonidae caught in the Volga rivers of Siberia, the Far East and the north of the European part of Russia. Manifestations of the disease: change in appetite, weakness, nausea (especially on an empty stomach), sometimes vomiting, salivation, belching, heartburn, abdominal rumbling, pressure in the stomach, unstable stool, headache, irritability, sometimes itchy rash.
Almost round worms small size of 5 mm parasitize the small intestine. Cause very persistent and severe diarrhea. They are infected chum salmon, brown trout, Dolly Varden char, whitefish and Amur grayling, taimen, goldilocks, rarely minnow and Amur sculpin. With long-term course of the disease develop anemia.
1-2 worms length, 5 mm grow roots in the human gut. Parasites are transmitted through Ussurian whitefish, carp, Amur bream, catfish, Rudd, minnows, Verkhoglyad, crucian carp, carp. The disease is spread among the population of the Russian Amur region, some areas of Korea, China, Japan, the Philippine Islands. Manifestations of the disease (there are 7-10 days after infection): fever, skin rash, diarrhea, abdominal pain, pain on palpation of the abdomen along the large intestine.
Larvae of roundworms can infect almost all species of saltwater fish:. Cod, okunovye, Salmonidae, etc. In particular, amazed herring in the Baltic Sea - 30% and in the North Sea - 55-100%. At risk of everyone who loves Japanese cuisine, prepared with raw fish. anisakids larvae may provoke the development of intestinal ulcers, the incubation period - from 4-6 hours to 7 days. Effects: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, rash, fever, diarrhea. Ligulosis.
Many anglers for cleaning fish caught detected in her abdomen long (120 cm) flatworms white (tapeworm). It pathogens ligulosis or digrammoza many freshwater fish - immature forms of tapeworms-Ligulidae. Mature individuals live in the intestines of fish-eating birds: gulls, grebes, cormorants, herons. This so-called final of their owners. Furthermore they are involved in the development of Ligulidae 2 intermediate host - Cyclops and fishes, mainly carp (bream, bream, roach, Rudd, roach). Once in the intestine along with food and then into the cavity of the fish's body, the parasites grow, fed by the owner, compress the internal organs, causing disruption of their functions.
Fish caught, struck ligulids, after removing them from the abdomen is quite suitable for human consumption. However, meat from sick fish is slightly different on the biochemical composition of the fish healthy meat, it is less nutritious and delicious.
Win parasite just - just cook the fish properly. A dish of raw fish can be eaten only under certain conditions:
• it must be artificially grown fish, which fed with artificial feed, treated and controlled in the absence of the parasite;
• if it is sea, caught in the ocean, it must immediately be on a fishing vessel frozen and thawed immediately prior to consumption; or it should be eaten immediately after harvest;
• in river fish in virtually all types of parasites can be dangerous for humans (except for sturgeon). Therefore, for example, sturgeon can be eaten raw. And other types of fish should be salt, pickle or smoke in accordance with the established guidelines. Safe Properly cooked fish. These Regulations apply to all the fish, as distinguished by eye, whether it has microscopic larvae (which, once in the human body, it will turn into adult worms), it is impossible.
Boil the fish should be 15-20 minutes. from the moment of boiling.
Fry - at least 15-20 minutes. (Big fish pre-cut along the spine at the formation).
Bake pies with fish at least 30 minutes.
When hot and cold smoked fish neutralized completely ready for the moment.
When salting of fish (2 kg) are killed larvae of parasites:
under salting hot (15-16 ° C) - after 5-9 days in a cold salting (5-6 ° C) - after 6-13 days in dry salting:
to whole fish - after 9-13 days to flog fish - 7-12 days.
Starts 20% of salt to the weight of the fish.
Freezing. Fish (up to 2 kg) is considered neutralized after exposure:
• 12 hours - at 27 ° C, • 18 hours - at 22 ° C, • 36 hours - at 16 ° C, • 3 days. - at 12 ° C, • 7 days. - at 8 ° C, • 10 days. - at 4 ° C.