CERN again "felt" new physics
From the mid to late twentieth century quantum physics was dismantled piece by piece a unified theory of physics, proposed by Einstein's general theory of relativity. great physics is subject to gravity, but only quantum physics could describe the observation of small. Since then, it continued theoretical tug of war between gravity and the other three fundamental forces of physics while trying to expand the gravity or quantum physics, that one could absorb another. Recent measurements received from the Large Hadron Collider, show a discrepancy between the forecasts of the Standard Model, which may hint at a whole new sphere of the Universe underlying described by quantum physics. Although confirmation of these anomalies require retesting, confirmation will mean a turning point in our most fundamental description of particle physics today.
Quantum physicists have discovered that not mesons disintegrate into a kaon and muon as often as required by the Standard Model. They believe that the increase in power of the Large Hadron Collider will open a new type of particle that is responsible for this discrepancy. Although the difference may cause an error in the data or theory, in this case, instead of a new particle improved the LHC would be a boon for several projects at the forefront of physics.
The standard model
The standard model - it is a well-tested fundamental theory of quantum physics, which describes three of the four fundamental interactions that are believed to govern our physical reality. Quantum particles come in two basic types: quarks and leptons. Quarks are bound together in various combinations to form particles such as protons and neutrons. Protons, neutrons and electrons are known to gather in the atoms. "Lepton family" has a heavier version of the electron - like muon - and quarks can be collected in hundreds of other composite particles. Two of them, the lower and the K-mesons, were involved in the detective quantum, which drew the attention of scientists. B-meson decays by K-meson, followed muon (mu-) and anti-muon (mu +).
Scientists have discovered a probability of 2, 5 sigma, or 1 to 80 that in the absence of unexpected effects, that is, new physics, more deviant distribution than observed, will be about 1, 25% of the cases, said Professor Spencer Klein, Senior Researcher Officer Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory. Klein was not involved in the study.
Simply put, the decay frequency of the strange quark mesons in proton collisions at the LHC is lower than expected. "The catch is that with 2, 5 sigma, or data bit wrong or a little theory is wrong, or there is a hint of something beyond the Standard Model," says Klein. "I'd bet on something one of the first two."
According to Klein's opinion, this deviation is inevitable, given the large amount of data that computers operate in operations with the LHC. "With petabaytovymi datasets with BAC and modern computers, we can produce an enormous number of calculations of different sizes," Klein says. "The LHC has given many hundreds of results. Statistically, some of them may show fluctuations in the 2, 5 sigma ". Particle physics are usually expected fluctuation of 5 sigma, before beating the bell.
These latter anomalous observations also were not taken from the ceiling. "I wonder how these observations correlate with other anomalous measurement processes involving B-mesons, made in recent years," says Dr. Tevong Yu, co-author of the study and a junior researcher at the University of Cambridge. "These independent measurements were less clean, but more significant. In sum, the chance that all these different measurements deviate from the standard model, is close to 1 in 16,000, or 4 sigma, "he says.
Expansion of the Standard Model of
Excluding statistical or theoretical errors Tevong suspects that mask the presence of anomalies entirely new particles or new leptoquarks gauge bosons. Inside the lower mesons quantum excitation new particles may interfere with the normal decay rate. In their study, the researchers concluded that the updated BAK can confirm the existence of new particles and make a powerful upgrade to the Standard Model in the process.
"That would be revolutionary for our fundamental understanding of the universe," says Tevong. "For particle physics, this will mean that we will raise a further layer of Nature and continue the journey to the most basic building blocks. It will be important for cosmology, since it is based on our understanding of the fundamental theories of the early universe. Interaction between cosmology and particle physics has been very fruitful in the past. As for dark matter, if it arises from the same new physical sector, which is built leptoquarks, we could also find its mark. "
Knowledge - Power
Until now, scientists from the LHC observed only ghosts and anomalies that hint at the particles that exist at high energy levels. In order to prove their existence, the physicists' need to confirm indirect signs, and for this it is necessary to wait until the LHCb experiment will not collect more data on the decays of B, to make more accurate measurements, "says Tevong. "We also obtain independent confirmation from another experiment, Belle II, which will be felt in the next few years. After all, if the decay measurement B will still be at variance with the forecasts of the Standard Model, we are sure that playing something beyond the Standard Model. " To establish the existence of new particles, physicists need to make them as well as lower mesons or Higgs bosons, and observe their decay. The fact that they have not seen such exotic particles at the LHC (for now), meaning that they can be too heavy for their production need more energy.
Quantum Leap for TANK
The search for new particles at the LHC does not depend on expectations. The probability of observing new phenomena is directly proportional to the number of particles, killed in clashes. "The more particles there is, the higher the chances that we will notice right on the background of many other events in these collisions," explains Tevong. The search for new particles, he likens the search for a needle in a haystack; easier to find a needle in a haystack, which is full of needles.
If abnormalities are confirmed, the standard model will have to change. However, the increase of energy and extent to which the next generation will orient collider. Possible and get to the dark matter. And there, staring, will combine all of these interactions between the various anomalies in a unified and elegant theory.