How it works? | A quantum computer
Quantum computer - a computing device that utilizes the phenomenon of quantum mechanics for the data transmission and processing. The idea of quantum computing has been proposed independently by Yuri Manin and Richard Feynman in the early 80-ies of the last century. Since then, it has done a tremendous job of building a quantum computer. However, a full-fledged universal quantum computer is still a hypothetical device, the possibility of development of which is related to the serious development of quantum theory. To date, individual experimental systems with low complexity algorithms were created. How does a quantum computer - about it in today's issue!
The main difference from the classical quantum computer is to provide information. In conventional computers that are based on transistors and silicon chips, used binary code for processing information. Bit, as is known, has two basic states - zero and one, and may be in only one of them. As for the quantum computer, its work is based on the principle of superposition, instead of bits used quantum bits, called qubits. We also have two qubit ground states: zero and one. However, due to the superposition of qubit can take on values obtained by combining them, and remain in all these conditions simultaneously. This is the parallelism of quantum computing, that is, no need to go through all the possible variants of the system states. In addition, to describe the exact state quantum computer system does not need large amounts of computing power and memory, since the system for the calculation of the 100 particles sufficient to qubits 100 and not trillion trillion bits.
It is also worth noting that the change in the state of a particular qubit in a quantum computer is to change the state of the other particle, which is another difference from the usual computer. And this change can be controlled. The process of working quantum computer has been proposed by the British theoretical physicist David Deutsch in 1995, when he created a chain capable of performing any calculations at the quantum level. According to his scheme, to start a set of qubits taken and recorded their initial settings. Then the necessary conversions are performed using the logical operations and writes the resulting value, which is the result issued by a computer. The role of the wires protrude qubits, and perform conversion logic blocks.
According to the scientists, quantum computers are a million times more powerful than today's. Already we described in a variety of algorithms for quantum computer, and even developed special programming languages. According to the forecast of researchers Cisco Systems, a full working quantum computer will be available by the middle of next decade. The leader in this area is Japan: more than 70% of all research is necessary on this country.