Trying to understand the nature of supermassive black holes, scientists have discovered dozens of these monsters
Studying several tens of galaxies within a few billion light-years from our own, it helped open several black holes, which are many times higher than our expectations about how large they can grow. The latest research not only helps us to better understand the evolution of these enigmatic astrophysical objects, but also opens up new interesting questions for us. For example, how black holes are so incredibly massive?
Black holes are the result of stellar collapse, need no introduction. We heard that they cause space-time disturbances observed their "burp" and even, perhaps, for the first time in history will be able to see with my own eyes one of them this year. Scientists are very interested in black holes, and this is quite understandable reasons.
"What is a galaxy? This is the "building blocks", merging into the overall picture of the universe. In order to understand how they form and evolve, we must first understand how black holes, "- says physicist Julie Hlavacek-Larrondo from the University of Montreal (Canada).
It's not that black holes themselves makes this work - it is difficult to understand that it is impossible (we think) to see directly. Therefore astrophysics seek other clues that would dig deeper. One of the directions - find the link between the masses of black holes and galaxies in which they reside. If we had a simple way to compare the size of galaxies located at their centers by black holes, then, according to scientists, it would have saved us a lot of time and effort to the study of both the first and second. Therefore Hlavacek-Larrondo, joined forces with other researchers from Canada, Spain and the UK, conducted a study of 72 galaxies located within a radius of 3, 5 billion light-years away, in the hope to come to some common formula that could facilitate the mass determination black holes in galactic centers. Their observations, scientists share in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.
To estimate the size of black holes themselves research team analyzed the spectrum of X-rays escaping from the vortex flow of hot gas drives the accretion black holes, and then compared the figures with the general level of ambient brightness galaxy.
According to quite a popular hypothesis, the greater the galaxy itself, the greater may be the black hole itself, located in its center - but in practice it was not as easy as expected.
"We found that black holes can be much more alleged statutory dimensions," - commented the lead author of the study in March Mezkua of the Institute of Space Sciences in Spain.
Instead of the expected correlation in weight and size to their galaxies certain number of black holes showed a much more rapid growth and weight set in comparison with the rest of the surrounding space. It was found that about 40 percent of studied black holes have a mass at 10 billion or more times greater than the mass of the sun. There really should be clarified that there are no records of weight were recorded, and the championship is still owned by the black hole of the galaxy NGC 4889, whose weight is equivalent to 21 billion solar masses. In addition, there are suspicions that the Galaxy S5 0014 + 81, located at 12, 1 billion light-years away, contains a monster with a mass of 40 billion Suns. Nevertheless, such a large number of supermassive black holes led scientists to think about how they become such. Researchers have two suggestions in this regard either of these black holes were initially very high and then literally pulled most of the matter of the galaxy around you, or in the state of our knowledge about how galaxies produce black holes, there are serious gaps.
"They are so great because there were just so, or in doing so, they helped to ideal conditions, allows you to quickly grow in a few billion years? At the moment, we can not answer this question ", - says Mezkua.
But the answer to this question may be contained in another study published in the largest online library of research papers arXiv.org and awaiting review. In its course scientists studied more than 30,000 galaxies located within a radius of 12, 2 billion light-years, and found that the ratio of the growth of black holes and the rate of star growth accelerated with the growth of galaxies themselves, which were studied objects. In other words, a large number of galaxies with stars black holes always appeared "voracious".
More general conclusion from these studies is that the connection between star formation and black hole is really there, and it is very complicated. Of course, it requires more than a dozen studies in order to better understand it. But one thing becomes clear now - our universe without these giants would have looked very different.