What scientists have learned about the fourth dimension
An international team of physicists conducted two experiments in which the researchers were able to record the behavior of particles, uncharacteristic for the three-dimensional space.
According to scientists, this phenomenon may be a proof of the existence of the fourth dimension, but this theory is to be confirmed. What is fraught with multi-dimensional world?
In 1915, Albert Einstein published his theory of relativity, which deals with the space-time continuum, and assumes the existence of the fourth dimension. After 100 years, physicists from Switzerland, the USA, Germany, Italy and Israel have tried to bolster the theory of practice. They conducted two experiments in which made the so-called Hall effect. According to the assumptions of researchers, it is not simply the effect of the fourth measurement to the objects of our universe.
In their study, the researchers made a start from the following hypothesis: if three-dimensional objects cast shadows of two-dimensional, three-dimensional object that can be seen as a "shadow" of four-dimensional.
(adjusted its structure to near absolute zero (-273, 15 ° C)) In order to "catch" it, physics slowed down the movement of electrons in an atom. Then - in the special two-dimensional structure - with a laser beam motion of the electrons it has been started in this atom. As a result atoms become shifted in the transverse direction, moving to a new dimension. Such a motion corresponding to the four-dimensional effect, the researchers were able to observe for the first time.
In a second experiment conducted Physics laser beam through the glass block, simulating the effect of electric fields on charged particles. Thus scientists are able to observe a Hall effect - conduction phenomenon at low temperatures in high magnetic fields.
"When it was suggested that the quantum Hall effect can be seen in the four-dimensional space, many doubted, because the real world consists of only three spatial dimensions. But now we have shown that the four-dimensional Hall effect can be obtained using photons - particles of light that passes under a laser through a specially structured piece of glass, "- said study author Michael Rehtsman.
According to experts, further experiments in this area will help create technologies that take advantage of a greater number of measurements within the usual human space. However, as the candidate of physical and mathematical sciences Sergey Stremoukhov, despite the impressive results of the study, to be physically in the fourth dimension people can not.
The authors also believe that travel between dimensions while from the category of fiction. But successful experiments can help, for example, in the creation of quasicrystals - does not yet exist in reality solids. And they, as the scientists believe it will be possible to apply in the development of innovative materials for domestic use, for example, non-stick coatings.
On the eve of the multidimensionality of
"Imagine a four- or five-dimensional space is difficult, but hypothetically mathematics has long been talk about stomernyh spaces. Scientists theoretically predicted space containing an infinite number of measurements. For example, we examine the state, and each of them has its own territory, the number of towns and villages, population, gross domestic product and other indices. From a mathematical point of view all these figures for each state can be represented as a single point in space is very high dimension, "- he told Stremoukhov.
The existence of new dimensions stated not only in the general theory of relativity. So, in superstring theory is considered 10 independent spatial directions.
Physicists from the Max Planck Institute believes that other dimensions may be lurking in gravitational waves - cosmic space-time disturbances.
Experts believe that other dimensions may affect the gravitational waves in two ways: to change the conventional gravitational waves and cause "unnecessary waves" at frequencies above 1000 Hz. However, watch the "extra wave" is not yet possible, because the existing ground detectors are not sensitive enough to such high frequencies.
However, the effect of "extra waves" can be found there, where ordinary gravity waves compress and stretch space-time. For this purpose, in the next cycle of research, planned for autumn 2018, scientists employ several detectors of gravitational waves Virgo and Ligo. There is a possibility that the theory of the existence of other dimensions confirm or refute the following year.