Freediving - what is it? Diving apnea
Water - the natural environment for our body. It is no place for panic, fear and nervousness. In the water you can experience the unknown, discover in themselves the unknown and enjoy the tranquility. Dialogue with the sea, sports victories and method of meditation - all this modern freediving. What is it, what are the characteristics of this type of sport and the physiology of the process - all of this in this article.
Many of us learned about diving with breath of Luc Besson's saga "The Big Blue" (1988). The film is based on real events and characters are not fictional. Confrontation between the two divers - the legendary Jacques Mayol (1927-2001) and Enzo Majorca (1931-2016) was actually. But the film is still an art. And in the life of Jacques Mayol, author of the book "Homo Delphinus. Dolphin in man "(1986)," man-dolphin ", carried away by a diver who has set several records in freediving, committed suicide. And Enzo Majorca, "the king of the abyss", athlete career ended in 1988, received a serious pulmonary barotrauma, from which he never recovered.
Information for those who do not know what freediving - is swimming underwater apnea (apnea). The name is derived from the English word free and dive- and free dive. Modern freediving has three areas:
- Commercial - dive for the purpose of earning and spearfishing.
- Recreational - dive for fun, a way to active leisure.
- Sports freediving. What is it to be considered separately.
It should be noted that special training and the development of special techniques required for practicing freediving. To the untrained diver is a hobby can be extremely dangerous. That is why there are many training schools freediving, where the training conducted by certified instructors.
The history of freediving
What is it -.. Ie diving apnea - people knew long ago. Obtaining food and spearfishing on the coast of Africa, Mesopotamia, the Far East and the New World were associated with a dip in the sea depths. To have survived the cultural phenomenon of divers in apnea - Ama diver in Japan, the Philippines, Bhajan, pearl divers in Polynesia. With about 60 years of the last century, the revival of the sport. The World Federation of Diving at the same time ratified records freedivers. Numerous violations of safety and health studies about the dangers of enthusiasm led to the cessation of activities of this organization. Freedivers but that did not stop, they continued to dive. And die. In the period from 1970 to 1990. register more tragic dives than during the existence of modern freediving.
In 1992 there was the International Development Association of diving in apnea (Association Internationale pour le developpement de l'apnee), which registered a record 213 freediving and handed over 150 medals at the world level championships.
When we talk about high scores and achievements - we are talking about sports immersion apnea. This means that athletes do not use any devices for breathing underwater, and rely solely on their own skills. Modern freediving divided into disciplines held in the pool and in open water. When people talk about records and achievements, it is a sport freediving.
Freediving in the pool
The confined water competitions in the following disciplines:
- STA - static breath-holding (the athlete holds his breath, lying in the water).
- DNF - swimming underwater in length without fins.
- DYN - diving in length with fins or monofin.
Freediving Open Water
The specifics of these competitions - diving deep.
- CNF - the most difficult type. Diver descends vertically downwards and rises up, using only the power of their own muscles.
- CWT - dive and surfacing using fins or monofin.
- FIM - free immersion. The athlete descends and climbs the rope.
- VWT - dive with the load. The descent is done using a special trolley and lifted by means of their own muscles.
- NLT - dive without restrictions. Descent is carried out by means of the load or trolley, and lifting gear with any optionally athlete.
The latter type is the most dangerous, and it takes only five athletes in the world of freediving. What is it - the athlete goes down with little or no insurance and very quickly reaches maximum depths.
Unlimited - Yesterday and Today
It started this extreme competition in 1949. Underwater photographer Raimondo Bucher (Italy) to the dispute has dived to a depth of 30 meters. Italian divers Ennio Falco and Alberto Novelli entered the competition, and went abroad the depth of 40 meters.
In 1960, Enzo Majorca dived to a depth of 49 meters, and in 1966 he improved result, lost by 54 meters.
Hundred meter line was broken by Jacques Maillol in 1983.
Modern record belongs to the Austrian freediver Herbert Nitsch - 214 meters in the category without limits (2007). This "the deepest man in the world" put the record 31 in this form of freediving.
What is it - the diver's reflex?
When a person is immersed to a depth of 50 meters where the pressure reaches 11 atmospheres, the diver triggered protection reflexes - the same as dolphins and whales.
- Blood shift - at a certain depth, all the body's blood flows away from the limbs, heading into the chest. Since the body is saved from being crushed.
- bradycardia - slow heart beat. Some divers at a depth of heart beats frequency 7 beats per minute. At a rate - 80 beats per minute. So the body reduces the oxygen demand of all tissues of the body, leaving it only to the brain.
How do they feel?
What happens in the body freediver and that he feels? Primarily, the oxygen partial pressure is reduced, hypoxia. At the same time, it increases the partial pressure of carbon dioxide develops hypercapnia. Add to that the "nitrogen narcosis" - the impact of high-pressure nitrogen on the nervous system. As a result, in some developing divers panic and fear in others - a state of euphoria. Both are dangerous manifestations - at a depth of losing self-control is lost. Another phenomenon that await divers - "negative buoyancy". This is when a field of 30 meters depth the athlete is no longer pops up and goes freely into the depths. It is a state of the coast described freedivers.
Equipment has high ergonomics and hydrodynamic qualities, less weight and absence of voids with air.
- Freight belt to compensate for the buoyancy of the athlete. This flexible tube filled with lead dust or straps with lead weights. To save the horizontal position used trucks collars.
- The suit neoprene with open pores. High elasticity, taxability, low thermal conductivity - the main characteristics of the suit. Dress him a hard time, even using special grease. In southern waters used costumes Lycra - it will not help against the cold, but save us from the stinging jellyfish.
- The flippers freediver tougher and long (80 cm), and is used with a monofin galosh.
- mask for freediving different minimum internal space, which prevents the production of crimp. Used and liquid glasses - they contain the space between the eye and the lens, which is filled with water.
- The tubes are used for breathing between dives.
- for freedivers Knives - it is not a weapon, and rescue tools.
Freediving for themselves
When the purpose is not to set records, then this is called recreational freediving. They are engaged in by those who want to feel better, to feel more fully his own body, to create their own style of life, to see the underwater world. There are dive and extreme - ice, cave freediving, spearfishing and diving safari.
Another area of application is the freediving underwater photo and video shooting. A separate direction - staged underwater photos. Freediver skills in this field can be useful to the photographer.
Dives like meditation method
About meditative features also dive Jacques Mayol said. Freediving is present when holding your breath can be one of the elements of yoga. When immersed man can enter into a state of relaxation, tranquility, mental silence. It is meditation, and describe these feelings, many freedivers.
How else will it affect the body?
Constant breath holding training leads to positive changes in our body:
- backup increases the transport of oxygen, which leads to increased physical and intellectual capacities.
- normalized immune status and a nonspecific resistance, which increases the overall level of the body's resistance.
- chronic fatigue disappears, normal and improves the quality of sleep.
- There is the optimization of mental and emotional state and resistance to considerable nervous and emotional stress.
- It is good practice for climbers.
Russia does not lag behind
Since 2005, our country has an international federation of freediving. Founded her famous throughout the world freedivers mother and son Molchanov. According to the non-commercial partnership "Federation freediving", more than 100 thousands of Russians today are passionate about the sport. The organization of the competition in freediving, training and promotion of certified instructors immersion apnea - this is an incomplete list of federal tasks.
Russian queen freediving
She was known abroad more than at home. That so-called Western media Natalia Molchanov - the world's first woman who has overcome the barrier of 100 meters when immersed in apnea. It has established 42 record in 2005 with his son Alex overcame arch Blue Hall in Dahab, called the "graveyard of the divers' and dotted with plaques with the names of those who died in the Blue Hole. This is Natalia in 2013, set a world record in the discipline of breath holding in a static - 9 minutes and 2 seconds. She disappeared in the Mediterranean Sea (Formentera region), performing immersion August 2, 2015. She and today remains in the State University of Physical Culture, where she was a senior lecturer. Everyone who passed her freediving courses, remembered her queen of the sea and an active promoter of such a dangerous but beautiful sport.
I can not
That's what most people think, and read freedivers people special. Let's try to dispel some of the myths associated with the immersion and apnea.
- Freedivers - special. Even after the first session with an instructor, each can hold his breath for about 2 minutes. With the training progresses rapidly, not only the body but the mind. So that everyone can become a freediver.
- Immersion Apnea is dangerous. At official competitions were not deaths over the past 20 years. Although the loss of consciousness for the ascent were. Live at all dangerous. And freediving is no exception. The main thing here - do not dive alone and observe safety rules.
- For freediving to be a good swimmer. Is not a fact. Many professional swimmers hinders competitiveness to achieve harmony and concentration necessary when diving apnea.
- Do not deeper than 15 meters - only such a depth for me. Many people set themselves such limitations, but novice freedivers quickly forget about them. Competitiveness and the excitement is still in our human nature.