The strangest creatures 2011
Each year, biologists and zoologists from all over the world make up a kind of hits the most interesting inhabitants of our planet. In 2010, scientists found "on unknown paths" of "unprecedented animals": Pinocchio frog-flower-eating rats, worms, shoot "bombs", and even a fungus named modest phallus.
This year, the ten most interesting species called the International Institute survey forms (International Institute for Species Exploration) Arizona State University (USA)
The worm bite-teeth daggers
Unlike conventional leeches have three jaws with tiny microscopic fifty-seed cloves length 0, 012 mm, found kind of terrified scientists. Just imagine, this puny 5 cm long grow a single, but very large jaw, which adorn the eight teeth-like daggers (leech, of course), the length of 0, 13 mm. She pierces them in your favorite "treats" - noses of animals and humans - and drinks the blood through the mucous membrane.
She first caught the eye of experts in Peru, when it turned up his nose eight girls swim in the Amazon. Unlike other leeches that leave the victim, drunk the blood, it may suck for a few days or even weeks. Mouth and bloodthirsty leeches inspired researchers to name Tyrannobdella rex - in honor of the Tyrannosaurus rex Tyrannosaurus.
Darwin's bark spider weaves a web stronger than steel
Spider Caerostris darwini named after the famous naturalist Charles Darwin because they have begun to study it November 24, 2009 (and finished only this year) - the day that marks exactly 150 years since the publication of the first edition of the book "The Origin of Species ". This insect is so laboriously, if he wants to prove slightly pereinachenny Darwinian tenet: if the labor of a monkey can make a person, then the spider-workaholic - the leader of the hit parade.
The fact that none of his fellow men in the world does not spin such a giant network, the total area of which can be up to about three square meters, and "shoots" webs 25 meters long.
And his thread so strong that chemists envy: they are ten times stronger than Kevlar - very strong synthetic fiber that is five times stronger than steel. From it are made bulletproof vests. Their networks spiders often stretch across the mountain rivers and streams. Every day they get a few dozen insects. He lives in Madagascar.
A cockroach does not jump worse grasshopper
In South Africa, in the rainforest on the slopes of Table Mountain near Cape Town - the main tourist attractions of the republic - Biologists have found a new kind of Saltoblattella montistabularis cockroaches. He jumps better than a grasshopper, his eyes in the form of hemispheres, the outstanding sides of the head, and antennae with additional fixation point for stabilization during the jump.
Until recently, about jumping cockroaches scientists have known only from the fossil of the late Jurassic period (196-175 million. Years ago). Where did this living fossil? Maybe it is an alien? - joke researchers.
This new species of bacteria living on iron oxide, was found on the sinking "Titanic". Studies show that it adheres to the steel surface, creates corrosion products that have contributed, along with other microorganisms, to a deterioration in the state of metal, "Titanic." This will eventually lead to the disappearance of "Titanic." This bacterium can be useful to carry out studies related to the study of old naval and merchant ships that sank in the ocean depths.
Varan Forest or Golden Spotted
This is a big wood frugivorous lizard genus Varanus and can only be found in the woods of Northern Sierra Madre, Luzon, Philippines. Lizard could grow to more than 2 meters in length, but only weighs about 10 kg (22lb).
It is striking to think that something of this size has eluded biologists because it spends most of its time in trees. Nevertheless, he was known to local hunters.
The first report of the existence of species of fungi fruiting underwater. Habitat: the United States, in southern Oregon, Jackson County
Fish pancake grown legs
Deep-sea fish Halieutichthys intermedius like a cartoon character - a kind of pancake Crunchy pupyrchatoy with huge bulging eyes and legs, fins, in which he walks, and even jumping on the bottom. And when the "pancake" opens his mouth, then seemed to say the words of our Bun: "I left my grandmother, I resigned from my grandfather ..."
Some researchers call it even Batfish - "fish - bat." On rodent volatile it becomes like when swimming. This unusual species was discovered just before the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. And today, it has to be saved from the consequences of ecological catastrophe.
This new duiker from West Africa first met in Benin (328 m above sea level), near the Manigri Environmental Center. It is surprising, therefore opening new types of well-studied groups of animals in the wild is a sobering reminder of the kinds of mammals that have not been described, even in those which are operated on a daily basis for food. Taxonomic description Philantomba walteri should promote the study of its ecology and behavior, as well as save it.
Mushrooms shine to the music of Mozart ...
Botanists are recognized when they are in Brazil, Sao Paulo, seen in the darkness of the forest huge meadow, which glowed a yellowish-green stems strange, we thought that they had hallucinations. Then, when they realized that they face a bioluminescent mushrooms, we decided to call them Mycena luxaeterna - mushrooms "eternal light" (lux - light aeterna - the eternal) in honor of the eponymous part of "Requiem" by Mozart. Of about 1, 5 million species of fungi on Earth only 71 species has the ability to glow and Mycena luxaeterna - one of the most striking species.
Cricket pollinated orchid
All merit cricket Glomeremus orchidophilus - pollinate unique orchid Angraecum cadetii, growing on the island of Reunion in the Indian Ocean. But apart from him, the job no one in the world can not do. This insect disappears - there will be a beautiful flower. In addition, the cause of his falling into hits in the fact that he - the only representative of the family of Orthoptera (This includes, in particular, known to all locusts), able to pollinate the flowers.