9 cars, able to drive without a driver
Van, to get from Europe to Shanghai, "guglomobili" motorcycle without a rider, 9-ton truck, stumbled on an ordinary shrub, and other leaders of the automotive industry
"A little more, and the cars, instead of helping the driver navigate and maneuver safely, just throw him out of the donut as the most unreliable element of the system. Over the past two decades, for this it has been done a lot, the last standalone Lexus from Google, received the right to ride on the roads of California, is just one example. How soon will come the future and how it will look cooperation "new cars" and people? An overview of what head and share in this sector, automobile and Internet companies, universities and laboratories, a simple private operators, will help to imagine, what can we expect next.
Toyota Prius from Google: the first robot-car-in-law
In March 2012, in Nevada - the first of the American states - came into force a law allowing driving on the highway "vehicles that use artificial intelligence, sensors and global positioning system to move on their own, without the active intervention of the driver, man." The driver in this Act referred to as "operator" and remains so even if the "physically present" in the car: as long as the person does not Google cars do not drive on the roads. In addition to the customary rights "operator" must obtain a special document proving his ability to control it is a robot, not a machine.
Non-issued car without a driver - with a red background and a symbol of infinity (when to start commercial use of vehicles, background will change to green). In May 2012, the first in the autonomous vehicle license was issued to the "Toyota" from Google. In addition to its rooms can be found on a large circular laser sensor on the roof - it replaces the driver's eyes. A first test of the seven "Toyota" company held back in 2010: then they drove more than 220 000 km.
Vislab: three months from Milan to Shanghai
Laboratory Vislab is based in Parma, and since the early 1990s has been "artificial vision" and its use in motor vehicles, able to drive without a driver. Equipped by car Piaggio Porter (collect them in England) in 2010, he traveled the length of three months, during which drove without a driver from Milan to Shanghai. Travel was named Intercontinental Challenge. Carriages were literally covered with a variety of equipment: the camera behind the windshield and sides, three laser scanners on the front bumper, center and side of the scanner, plus a giant solar panel on the roof - the cars were completely "on the go electric." Sly Italians slightly simplified their daunting task: Cars were divided into pairs - each of them has been the leading car where the driver occasionally intervene in the management and driven, which focused on riding ahead and done their own 100% of the way. In August 2010, the caravan visited Moscow, and by the fall got to Shanghai.
Robot truck TerraMax, nature lover
The inventors of robotic machines have not been separated, they have a point to gather - a worldwide competition DARPA Grand Challenge. For the first time it was held in the Mojave Desert across several southern US states in 2004. Then none of the robotic machines do not reach the finish line 240-kilometer route. But the following year managed to go the whole route is one of the brightest and largest representatives of the family of "autonomous vehicle" - a truck Terramax, developed by Oshkosh Corporation, based in Wisconsin, and Italian Vislab. Do it explicitly with military bias - is the natural scope of the car without a driver. The main problem in the competition for him became a little tumbleweed bushes, found themselves on the road: a giant truck, finding them to your laser eye, trying to carefully drive around each of them, and these maneuvers lasted a long time. As a result, the average speed TerraMax was less than 17 km / h, and even though he finished, no awards have not received. Weight Terramax, as though coming out of a Stephen King story about rabid trucks - a little more than 9 tons.
The machine-VAMP: one of the first robotic vehicles
Vamp was one of the first cars that could go without a driver. In its creation was attended by the University of Munich, and Mercedes-Benz, it was the turn of the 1990s. The main problem then was fast enough to create the "brain" of the car picture of reality. For its review only 4 cameras were used, but in order to process their images had to be installed in the 500-th "Mercedes" 60 computers working in parallel - these were the then power. About navigation makers are not particularly thought - the main thing was just to teach the car is safe to drive. In 1994, in the area of Charles de Gaulle airport was arranged presentation: two cars with "the driver just in case" and guests of the event traveled 1000 km 3-lane highway with a speed up to 130 km / h. They have shown to rebuild from the band on the strip and overtaking other cars (robot every time warned about the upcoming maneuver and did not start it without the approval of the driver dozhdavlis-human). Now VaMP exhibited in Deutsches Museum in Munich.
Gibdirny Lexus RX learns to ride in difficult conditions,
Benzo-electric Lexus - the most recent of the models on which Google scans their technology. Testing began a few months ago. Determine their location, "understanding" of who and what is around - all this as a whole passed stage. The current task - to learn to drive a car through the snow, to maneuver in a zone where construction is under way, as well as quickly and correctly respond to a variety of non-standard traffic situations. While sitting in the car for each riding two operators, but Google is going to release soon on the road already empty car. As of mid-August this year was recorded only one accident involving a robotic machine, and its perpetrator was a man.
Vseberlinskoe taxi MIG
MIG stands just - MadeinGermany. In fact, this is not a machine, but a whole system developed by the Open University of Berlin (Freie Universität Berlin) and resembles the future route taxi. The presentation took place in 2010. Human contact is as follows. He calls the car from your device, which transmits the location of the caller. The machine is the best route to his future rider and tells whether the drive up soon. The main idea of the inventors to the same auto-taxis could pick up on the road and deliver a few people traveling in the same direction. The developers claim that the use of this technology throughout the city will reduce the number of cars on the streets of five times. It is assumed that the rider is the option to "turn off the automation and drive a car in the old way." The sensors produce a three-dimensional image of the surrounding electronic brain of the car - it looks like the main hero of the "Terminator".
Robots Machinery ULTra Heathrow airport
In autumn 2011, Heathrow Airport announced the beginning of the use of vehicles without drivers to take passengers from the car park to the terminal: in contrast to the already familiar to airports trailers mini-metro, these electric vehicles can ride not on the tracks, but just on the pavement and on their own to call in a mini-site parking. He developed their University of Bristol. The 5th terminal 21 operates such machine, each can carry four passengers with luggage and accelerates to 40 km / h. For uniform distribution of machines on the territory of the terminal monitors a central computer. For passengers this service is free. Parked ULTra they should dial the touch screen terminal point - one or the other or parking terminal building. Doors open in the underground, and inside it is necessary to push two more buttons - Close the door and Go.
Volkswagen with the "temporary autopilot"
Volkswagen approached the problem of robotic machines pragmatically: created TAP system (Temporary Auto Pilot, "Cruise for a day"), which allows the car to move without the driver does not always, but often - on the motorway automatic control of the situation at speeds up to 130 km / h. The system is a kind of superstructure over the existing adaptive cruise control, noise monitoring system side, and so on. N. To implement it, I had to add a dozen cameras and sensors. TAP was presented in 2011. Machine automatically maintains a safe distance to traffic ahead, holding the middle of its lane and brake before curves highway. The man in the car is still the main - his (sensible) car action heard in the first place, the computer commands - in the second. The system was developed in the framework of pan-European research project HAVEit (Highly Automated Vehicles for Intelligent Transport).
Why motorcycle Ghost Rider does not drop
student work from Berkeley Anthony Lewandowski, who, together with a small group of like-minded people created a motorcycle that can go and be guided in space riderless. At competitions DARPA autonomous vehicles in the US, he was the main favorite of the public. In addition to the navigation system and conventional sensors it also had to provide a stabilization system in the vertical plane. The exact route of DARPA participants reported shortly before the start, and it is simply a set of coordinates, so that to prepare the vehicle to a particular route, to make him remember all the obstacles - it is impossible. Ghost Rider hit a fence, met him on the way, but managed to survive (if balance is lost from the body extends the leg, which does not allow the motorcycle to fall, it stops, and then can go on). Now motorcycle Lewandowski - one of the exhibits of National American History Museum.