As in China forge attractions and the whole European cities
• As in China forge attractions and the whole European cities
The Chinese are experts in copying. Chinese residents in parallel with the construction of their particular version of socialism successfully mastered the production of counterfeit clothing, gadgets, even spaceships.
In recent years, the scale of borrowing, practiced in the country has reached a new level: in the 2000s, received a special popularity construction of individual buildings, districts and entire cities, is basically a copy of the famous foreign counterparts. French chateaux, the Egyptian pyramids, Stonehenge, its Venice and Paris ...
We explored the architectural fake, fabricated in China, and found out why most of them were not wanted.
As for one day to visit the Netherlands, the UK, Sweden, Germany, Spain? In Europe it will do unless the owners of their own aircraft in China will also be sufficient to use the public transport services.
In 2001, launched a large-scale project "One metropolis - nine towns" in Shanghai, provides for the construction in the suburbs of large settlements of China once nine districts, each of which had its buildings resemble any country of the world.
At this point, the real estate market in China is booming. Continued labor migration from villages to cities millions of former peasants. Against this background, the government generously lending to housing, inflated market giant bubble: real estate, the price of which soared in the eyes of the Chinese middle class is becoming an attractive target for investment of their own savings.
Finally, the new generation of Chinese. They have already managed to get a good education beyond the borders of the country, have seen the world, earn good money at home and want a new quality of life - outside of the slum-hutongs, where their parents were born, and small apartments in the sleeping areas of the Soviet type, in which they have grown themselves.
At the same time, the leadership of the local provincial party committee and the executive committee of Shanghai at the beginning of the 2000s to reflect on the multi-million metropolis of decentralization.
The need for daily movement of giant masses of workers from the suburbs to the city center as its population growth represent a growing problem.
Nine new districts in Shanghai suburbs were to be not just an exotic residential areas, but, in fact, an independent town with all the laid infrastructure for recreation and the nearby industrial areas, where they could work in a fun, without overloading your presence Shanghai center.
For each of the nine "new cities" its thematic concept was proposed, to a certain extent reflect the views of the beautiful modern Chinese architecture. Eight areas of new buildings planned to stylize towns typical of a particular country in the world (ninth had to remind the traditional Chinese village). And often invited from European and North American architectural firms required not just to offer development, inspired by their native country, and just copy existing outside of China building.
For example, on the northern edge of Pudong district grew a new city National Higher Education Entrance Examination, stylized Netherlands. Drawn from the country's studio Atelier Kuiper Compagnons and Dutch, to develop a master plan for its development, projected here copies Naval Museum in Amsterdam, department Biyenkorf, lake manor Hofviyk near The Hague. Compare, for example, the last original, built in the XVII century, with a contemporary Chinese duplicate
All of this is complemented by residential buildings in traditional Dutch spirit, indispensable church, copied from ancient European counterparts, water channels, which were to remind Amsterdam ...
... and even a wooden windmill.
In Luodyane near the industrial zone of the same name already in 2004 built the region, inspired by the Swedish town of Sigtuna. In the area 6, 8 sq. km has appeared buildings, can accommodate 30-50 thousand. man.
In contrast to the other residents of Shanghai, these lucky people could not live in a 30-40-storey "cheloveinik" and in quite humane homes, townhouses and detached villas, really similar to their northern European counterparts.
And not without a replica of the Swedish Lutheran church, however, in the Chinese version does not perform religious functions. For the rest of the local population industrious builders dug up an artificial pond, reminiscent of a Swedish lake Mälaren in miniature, and opened numerous cafes and restaurants on its seafront.
The streets are also decorated with typical Scandinavian sculptures depicting naked people suffering from overweight.
Another town in the national style appeared in Sonyan area. This time simulation, called Thames Town, underwent conventional English town.
The narrow winding streets, cobblestone, traditional British home of red brick, just as the red telephone booths, a copy of the Bristol churches, a statue of Winston Churchill, and even a taxi-like London "cabs" - as in the fantasies of the Chinese customer, satisfied Atkins Bureau , looks like a "little England".
Pale yellow building with red tile roofs and picturesque mill on the background until the demolished wooden slum - a "Spanish" Shanghai Fench area.
But the half-timbered houses with German beer gardens and Oktoberfest in the fall in the suburbs of Shanghai Antin has not appeared. Experts architectural firm Albert Speer & Partner prefer different approach than blind copy of historical buildings and layout.
Albert Speer, son and namesake of Adolf Hitler's favorite architect, the builder instead persuaded fabulous German quarters to build a modern district in the German spirit: friendly environment, with all the latest urban trends and functional, important-looking houses.
As a result, the authors turned Exemplary modern European residential area, which can be found in Hamburg, and in Barcelona, and Copenhagen.
His German origins except that resemble statues of Goethe and Schiller - the great German poets, with some surprise, watching the surrounding China.
One Shanghai practice of copying the old European cities in China, of course, is not exhausted.
In the city of Hangzhou, which is considered the Venice of China, without thinking twice decided to build a replica of Venice itself: with channels, gondoliers, the Doge's Palace and St. Mark's bell tower of the Cathedral.
Located near Beijing Tianjin Hangzhou decided to become a peak east Florence.
It is this Italian city resembles a huge local shopping center area of 200 thousand sq. M. m.
In the city of Huizhou, South China Guangdong Province in 2012 was put into operation a complex of residential development, which is nothing more than how to copy the Austrian Alpine town of Hallstatt. The developer has invested in the area nearly a billion dollars spent on 450 houses, a replica of the church and even the position of the Hallstatt lake, created artificially in China. Unfortunately, full-Alpes resources is not enough, and the surrounding Huizhou small hills are only a miserable substitute for them.
Initially, a picturesque Austrian village population, which, incidentally, included in UNESCO World Cultural Heritage, vigorously protested against the emergence in China of counterfeit distant twin. Subsequently, however, the developer of the object in Guangdong - a local mining company - was able to negotiate with the municipality about the original use of his image.
Another construction company has decided not to waste your time on small villages and in 2007 began to build in that same city of Hangzhou a Paris - 31 square kilometer area Tsyanduchen inspired profitable buildings Haussmann copied from the parks with fountains of Paris, the Champs Elysées and even its own Eiffel Tower true, three times reduced compared to the original.
This is not all imported from Europe to China Town. Some of these architectural turned out quite successful, others are more like kitsch fake in the spirit of Las Vegas.
unites practically all these examples one thing: they are still essentially areas of ghost
On these streets is difficult (especially in the evenings) to meet people, windows in residential buildings are not illuminated, conceived on the ground floors of shops and restaurants are empty or completely closed.
The major reasons for this are two. Firstly, China's rare for a building typology, when instead of faceless rows behind each other skyscrapers were built relatively low-rise homes, and exclusive (besides China) appearance suggested that residents of such areas will primarily wealthy Chinese.
a dwelling house cost in the "Alpine Hallstatt" comes to € 600 thousand. (Much more expensive than in the charming heart of the original village), in the "Dutch" town of National Higher Education Entrance Examination by Shanghai relative to a small apartment in the house "at Amsterdam," is worth about a hundred one thousand dollars. Mansion in the "Swedish" Luodyane could cost $ 730 thousand.
For the overwhelming majority of the Chinese people is still very heavy sum. Those wealthy residents who still invest in such projects, considering them as a long-term investment - houses or pensions, or for potential speculation in the future.
Check the "China of Europe" is further complicated by a closed circle in which it landed. People refuse to move there due to the fact that there are shops, entertainment venues, restaurants, nurseries, and they, in turn, can not be opened due to lack of customers in the area.
However, the extent of abandoned houses and commercial real estate in copied from European cities do not go to any comparison with the number of not yet found in China consumer homes "model of consumer qualities."
According to some estimates, now in the country remain unoccupied flats and houses, designed for hundreds of millions of people. Against this background, the "elite" of the city will be much easier to find their tens of thousands of residents.
But in all these borrowed from Europe "ghost towns" no rebound from the honeymooners who want an exotic backdrop for their wedding photos.
The Chinese are happy and copy individual objects. Some Eiffel tower across the country built a dozen, including the largest in Tsyanduchene-Paris. In the city of Changsha in Central China, the owner of the construction company Broad Construction built a full-size copy of one of the Egyptian pyramids, which was to symbolize his "philosophy and ideas."
The role of the corporate office is located next door carries a replica of Buckingham Palace.
In the province of Hebei has a sphinx (with a broken nose carefully, but of painted concrete).
And in the city of Hefei is one of the residential areas for some reason decorated hoax of Stonehenge.
The original Tower Bridge
One of the bridges in Suzhou, the metropolis in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, is strikingly reminiscent of the Tower Bridge in London, but just in case, and with the Chinese scale built in two copies.
From France except Paris beauties, the Chinese liked to borrow the magnificent castles in the country. Hotel Château Laffitte, which opened in 2004 on the outskirts of Beijing, is an almost exact copy of the Château de Maisons-Laffitte from the neighborhood of the French capital.
And the headquarters of one of the Chinese wine companies in Tianjin is inspired by the Château de Montaigne, the family residence of the philosopher Michel de Montaigne. The glass pyramid in the courtyard of a Chinese replica - a copy of a similar structure in the Louvre.
Ill plagiarism exposed even modern buildings. Multifunctional complex Wangjing SOHO in Beijing, designed by Zaha Hadid, had not yet been put into operation, and in Chongqing in the foothills of Tibet have already built a similar structure, suspiciously reminiscent of the work of the famous British architect.
This should be a complex of Zaha Hadid in Beijing
And so looks like its counterpart in Chongqing
Some researchers Chinese "copying" phenomenon see it as evidence of a certain inner inferiority of the country and its inhabitants, degrading and have not yet been eliminated, "kowtowing to the West."
However, most likely, the essence of this relationship to borrowing architectural another country.
Bianca Sander Boschker, an American journalist who devoted a Chinese "building counterfeiting" a book, said it's all about a fundamentally different attitude to the residents of the Chinese copy.
"In the West, up implies a lack of imagination. But in China it is, on the contrary, it is considered a special form of skills, - she says. - When there appears a Paris, this should not be seen as worship of France. On the contrary, it is a celebration, celebration of China's success, because in their view, the repetition of something means domination of the original, the marginalization of its authors. "
In 1990-2000 Chinese architecture still looking for himself. In place of communist architecture, which ruled with a firm hand the party and government, came to creative freedom with all costs search for a new path.
Copying foreign experience has been one of its stages. Now this trend is on the decline.
In China, increasingly operate world-famous design company, has developed its own talented architects, customers have also become much more aware of fashion, current flows in the market.
The inevitable consequence of this, as well as the ever-growing power of the country will be the desire to amaze the world with their exclusively Chinese achievements, rather than mastery of imitation.