How to shoot the film "The Cranes Are Flying"
• How to shoot the film "The Cranes Are Flying"
December 28 marks the 115 years since the birth of the famous Soviet director, operator and screenwriter Michael Kalatozova. On the same day around the world celebrate the International Day of cinema. Perhaps this coincidence is not surprising - Kalatozov has become not only a classic of Soviet cinema, but also entered the world of cinema history: 60 years ago, his film "The Cranes Are Flying" won the main prize at the Cannes Film Festival, and Kalatozov became the only Soviet director-owner of the Golden Palm branch. But the most interesting part of the frame.
In the scenario laid down play Viktor Rozov "Eternally Alive" written back in 1944, but then it has not been published because of ideological reasons - the main character, who did not wait for a loved one from the front and married his brother, did not fit the image of faithful and devoted Soviet woman. When 13 years later the play finally published, Mikhail Kalatozov immediately tracked down the author and invited him to write a screenplay together. They added to a few episodes - scene of the bombing of Moscow, saved the heroine of the child on the bridge, the death of the parents of the main character, the death of her lover, and meeting the winners in the final, but the storyline remains the same - a loving couple, separated by war, and the young girl who committed error and repent of it.
The fact that the film is recognized as a masterpiece of cinema in the world, was also a great merit of Sergei Urusevsky operator - by offering them innovative methods (the use of hand-held camera, shooting on circular tracks), this picture is recognized as one of the first examples of the "Soviet new wave" , time of experimentation and "flying" around the court chambers. Urusevsky said: "The script was a lot of scenes from everyday life, but we were able to turn everything in the romantic side, or something ... It was not in the script nor the death of Boris, not suicide Veronica. It's all written during the filming, and for a long time is not made conscious of how these scenes will be filmed. All arose spontaneously in the course of work ... It was necessary to express the idea, make it to the screen as much as possible sharp tools. No one put such a goal: let's say, only pictorial! But the funds for some reason there were pictorial ... ".
Working on the film was not easy - at first very ill Tatiana Samoilova, played the main role, and then on the set of hit Alexey Batalov - on the script, he had to fall into the water during a fight with a soldier, jokes addressed to his fiancée Veronica. The actor fell right on the water sticking out of tree trunks and branches, and badly hurt his face. He had to put a few stitches, and he was even mentally said goodbye to the acting profession. Fortunately, cuts heal quickly, and within a month Batalov was able to return to the set. His acting career then went to take off.
Most of all disputes and the critics, and the public has caused the image of the main character. Due Kalatozova lighted star Tatiana Samoilova, but if her acting talent was never in doubt, her appearance was unusual for films of the time, especially for a film about the war - it later always called "non-Soviet" actress with "asymmetric and weird face ". In addition, the created image it was very controversial and divided the audience into two camps - those who condemned and those who sympathized with her. Nikita Khrushchev and does not hide his indignation, dubbed the main character "whore", and the film itself - "ideologically unrestrained."
"The Cranes Are Flying" was not a classic war movie - it has not dealt with the heroic exploits and battles, but instead in the center of the plot was a love line. Critics have accused the director in the drama and weak that they exchanged "large scale vital questions on the detail of mental breaks and movie-like." One critic put in reproach to the director that he was "unnecessary to spell out the fall of Veronica."
make or break for the film was accidental presence on the set of film enthusiasts from France, Claude Lelouch, who was in Moscow at the turputevku and within 2 days of working as an assistant operator. Then he directed his first documentary - on the set of "The Cranes Are Flying". Watching the work and Kalatozova Urusevsky, he decided to do the same, and then Claude Lelouch has become one of the most famous French directors in the world. On his return he was contacted by the director of the Cannes Film Festival, and persuaded him to include in the program of the film festival Kalatozova. As a result, "The Cranes Are Flying" won the main prize - the Palme d'Or, the film became the leader of the French box office, and Tatiana Samoilova, which received a special diploma of the jury of the Cannes Film Festival, began to call "Soviet Brigitte Bardot."
On how the Cannes audience reacted to this film, Tatiana Samoilova told: "At first, during the competitive view room was quiet, there was no response. We tightened. During Boris wires to the front of the scene heard the first applause. Then they already flashed the time: the bombing, the death of Boris, my runs. In the eyes of the jury members were tears, though they are not supposed to show their feelings. When the show ended, there was a long, long ovation. We rose, bowed. Then there was a bright light, the mass of enthusiastic words to our address. We photographed all the time, journalists did not let us leave the room. Interview followed one after the other. " Pablo Picasso described the film as a genius, and Tatiana Samoilova predicted future star.
In the Soviet press about the triumph of "The Cranes Are Flying" have published only one small note, which does not mention names of directors, scriptwriter and cameraman, but the victory at the festival reported a very low profile: "The film" The Cranes Are Flying "was shown another the second day of the festival. He made a deep impression on the public and journalists. The world press has devoted his hundreds of articles in which the celebrated picture of dignity. Of particular success was Tatiana Samoilova ".
In France, the film became a box office leader - then he looked at 5.3 million viewers, and in the USSR, he took only 10th place at the box office. He was appreciated only after years. Today, "The Cranes Are Flying" is considered one of the symbols of the Soviet cinema and one of the best films of domestic cinematography. His episodes versed in all textbooks on cinema.