The history of the invention of the parachute and the first jump with him
• The history of the invention of the parachute and the first jump with him
In the dead of winter in 1783 in the small coastal town near Montpellier, France Observatory crowd. On that day, Louis-Sébastien Lenormand promised to jump from the roof of the observatory - and at the same land without fractures. No magic - Louis Sebastian promised to provide an invention that would later become known as the "parachute".
In the invention, Louis-Sébastien Lenormand (Louis-Sebastien Lenormand) was a practical application - an engineer wanted to show that during the fire there is a way to jump from the roof of a burning building, and at the same time to stay alive. The invention consisted of a wooden base - Louis Sebastian used the elm - and linen.
Prior to this presentation Louis Sebastian repeatedly experimented on their own, that's true, jumping from lower height. So this time he must have worried himself. Especially because at the bottom of every moment I was going to more and more people. That's December 26, 1783 there was a successful jump first person in the history of mankind with a parachute - then it was more like a big umbrella than to a modern parachute. Louis Sebastian then really jumped off the roof and landed without breaking itself no arms or legs.
Jump Louis-Sébastien Lenormand December 26, 1783
Of course, Lenormand was not the first who thought of this idea, but he was the first to entrust their own lives to this invention - and thus survived. If you look at history, we find that the parachutes in one form or another have existed - in reality or in the imagination - for a long time. For example, the writer Han Dynasty Sima Qian tells the story of the legendary Chinese Emperor Shun, who fled from his father's killer, climbed onto the roof of the barn and jumping from it with two bamboo hats in their hands. The Italian manuscript of an unknown author in 1470-ies there is a picture of a parachute - a man hanging in the air on a frame to which is attached a conical dome. Just ten years later, Leonardo da Vinci made a sketch of a parachute - a more complex, with a square frame. "If a person is a tent made of linen, tent will be without holes and the size of 12 folds in breadth and length, it can help a person can jump from any height without getting hurt when landing," - wrote The Da Vinci under his thumbnail. But, of course, in fact, he hardly tried to jump with the help of his invention.
The first image of a parachute in a manuscript by an unknown Italian author in 1470-ies.
A century later, Fausto Verantsio studied parachute sketch Da Vinci and his little improved - he left a square frame, but did convex dome on the similarity of the sail. Due to the existing image of the invention, called "Homo Volans" ( "Flying Man"), which shows a man jumping with a parachute from the tower of St. Mark's in Venice, long thought that this jump and was the first in history. But Verantsio was then 65 years old and he was seriously ill - he would hardly have dared to jump, and other information on this jump is not - so it is unlikely that he ever actually happens.
Homo Volans - jump Fausto Verantsio.
In fact, up to the moment when Louis-Sébastien Lenormand jumped from the observatory, and the word-such as the "parachute" was not. It was also his contribution to the history - Lenormand took prefix Italian for "steam", which means "against" and the French word 'fall', that is, invention of the "anti-fall." Successful jump Lenormand gave impetus to the further development of the invention by other engineers. So, Jean-Pierre Blanchard showed two years later that with the help of a parachute can jump not only from the roofs of buildings, but also with a great height - that the truth revealed is not by example, and your dog example, throwing her to the air world. He began to think how to make the parachute failed to frame and folding - so there was no linen, and silk parachute. Another engineer in another 10 years - Andre Garnerin alone jumped by a collapsible silk parachute - and successfully landed. Now in its place stands a commemorative plaque touchdown.
Leap Andre Garner 1797.
Only one hundred years later, Charles Brodvik introduced significant new changes in the invention: he folded the parachute backpack and made it so that it opens with a static linear system - are sometimes used today.
Schematic representation of a parachute Andre Garnerin.