The greatest scholar of ancient Alexandria
Woman philosopher - an exotic phenomenon. We thought so at the time of Hypatia, in 300-400 years BC. She grew up in a family of one of the greatest scientists of Alexandria and has surpassed his father; taught mathematics, astronomy and philosophy, was cosmopolitan than students attracted pagans, Jews and Christians; He performed a trusted advisor to the city rulers, and went down in history as the greatest scholar of ancient Alexandria. TED-Ed released a video lecture about Hypatia, how it was accused of sorcery and the victim did scientist Christian bigotry and fanaticism.
Philosophy History fired and still excites the minds of people in the arts and sciences. About it wrote Voltaire and Charles Kingsley, her name was called lunar crater and an asteroid. In 2009, the director Alejandro Amenábar took a historical drama "Agora", tells the story of Hypatia of Alexandria. The film has been criticized for historical inaccuracies, but many details of the life of this individual to remain in discussions.
With an eye on the accuracy of the TED-Ed released an animated video lecture "The murder of the greatest scholar of ancient Alexandria" in the text of Soraya Field Fiorio (Soraya Field Fiorio). The creators adhere to the version in which the responsibility for the terrible death of the scientist, the responsibility of the Father of the Church, St. Cyril, allegedly became the ideological inspiration of Christian fanatics. Decoding in Russian under the video below.
In the city of Alexandria in 415 BC. e. the bishop and the prefect were in a state of struggle. It started with a disagreement over the behavior of the militia of monks and ended the accusation of witchcraft, made against one of the most influential figures in the city.
Hypatia of Alexandria was an outstanding mathematician, philosopher and adviser to the rulers of the city. Over the past century, the details of her life have been the subject of much debate, and almost gained mythical status. It is believed that none of his own compositions Hypatia has been preserved, but the stories of contemporaries and students about her work and life paint a picture of the qualities that made her famous scientist, favorite teacher, and eventually led to the death.
Hypatia was born around 355 in Alexandria, then was part of the Egyptian province of the Praetorian prefecture of the East Roman Empire, and the glory of the intellectual center. Her father Theon of Alexandria - Greek mathematician and astronomer; mother unknown. Likely Hypatia was an only child, and Theon he brought her. Growing up, she surpassed her father in mathematics and philosophy, it has become the most prominent scholars of the city and took his place at the head of the school of Neo-Platonism, Hypatia Theon, like a modern university. She improved scientific instruments, wrote textbooks on mathematics and developed a more efficient method of dividing numbers. But perhaps the most significant contribution to the intellectual life of Alexandria made it through their teachings.
Philosophy, which taught Hypatia, based on the legacy of Plato and Aristotle, as well as the mystical philosopher Plotinus and mathematician Pythagoras. Combining these powerful ideas formed a school called Neo-Platonism. For the Neo-Platonic mathematics was the spiritual aspect, divided between the four branches - arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music. These items have been studied not only for the sake of curiosity or practical use, but also because they confirm the belief that the numbers - the sacred language of the universe. The repeating pattern of algebraic formulas and geometric figures, the orbits of the planets and the harmonic intervals of musical tones Neoplatonists saw rational cosmic force in action. Students deepen in this orderly mathematical world, to achieve a higher unity with the power of what is called "Single".
Hypatia was considered a heathen - a traditional Roman beliefs to Christianity - it is not worship any specific deity or deities, and its ideas could be used along with several religious points of view. Jewish, Christian and pagan students came from the most distant corners of the empire, to learn from it. A non-partisan environment that supports Hypatia, where all students can feel comfortable, was particularly remarkable, given the religious and political turmoil that destroyed Alexandria at the time. Christianity recently became the state religion of the empire. Local Archbishop Kyrill has been steadily increasing its political power, calling ganged zealous Christian monks destroying pagan temples and harass the Jewish population. By doing so, he encroached on the temporal power of the Roman prefect Orestes, who was a moderate Christian, which led to a bitter public feud between them.
As Hypatia was considered a wise and impartial figure, the prefect Orestes turned to her for advice, and it is recommended to act honestly and with restraint. But when a group of monks provoked a riot, heavily injuring Orestes, he was tortured to death by their leader. Cyril of Alexandria and his followers were accused of Hypatia, saying that it is engaged in witchcraft to turn against Christianity Orestes. In March 415, the Archbishop took up arms against the monks seized Hypatia on a city street and brutally murdered, dismembered body.
The death of Hypatia was a turning point in the politics of Alexandria. After her murder other philosophers in the Greek and Roman tradition had fled, and the city's role as an educational center has decreased. In fact, inquisitive, open and unbiased mind, that she promoted, died with Hypatia.