Why in particular to respect Roosevelt in Crimea
April 22 at Yalta installed a bust of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. On the street that bears his own name. Why in the Crimea as a special way to relate it to the 32nd president of the USA?
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
One of the oldest streets of Yalta is named after Franklin D. Roosevelt since the 60-ies of the last century. The city authorities have taken such a decision, bearing in mind the involvement of the US president in the 1945 Yalta Conference, which brought together the leaders of the anti-Hitler coalition. Crimea struck Roosevelt ...
The conference was held at the Livadia Palace. It also placed and the largest of any American delegation. The reason is that the Americans have settled in Livadia, was the physical condition of the US leader, who moved in a wheelchair due to the suffering in the 20s polio.
Roosevelt said that he feels very well in Livadia. When he was no longer president, he would ask the Soviet government to sell him Livadia. He is very fond of forestry. He would put a large number of trees on the mountains near Livadia
of Franklin Roosevelt and conversation transcripts of Joseph Stalin. February 4, 1945
"Personal apartment Roosevelt were located on the ground floor, and he could move freely, without experiencing discomfort, but it should be noted that immediately went on a small security breach:. Delegation and its head placed in the place where the meetings were held, however, the front was already. far enough, and the security measures during the conference was unprecedented ", - says Dmitry Blintsov, researcher, department of the exposure of the Livadia Palace museum.
Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin during the Crimean Conference, 1945
Livadia, with its picturesque park is so pleased with the American leader that he whether in jest, whether seriously asked Stalin to sell him a palace. In the transcript of a personal meeting of Roosevelt and Stalin, February 4, 1945, this request is fixed as follows: "Roosevelt says he feels at Livadia very well when he will no longer be president, he would ask the Soviet government to sell him Livadia He is very fond of.. forestry. He would put a large number of trees on the mountains near Livadia ". Based on the same transcript, Soviet leader diplomatically left the answer, saying that "Crimea is still malokultivirovannuyu country" and "a lot still needs to develop here."
By the way, Roosevelt came to the conference, accompanied by his daughter Anna. In addition it was also attended by the daughter of Winston Churchill and Sarah the daughter of the American ambassador in Moscow, Averell Harriman, Kathleen. "I think their fathers daughter provided psychological support after a long and difficult political debate away from home", - said the historian.
Franklin Roosevelt and his daughter Anna
But despite the positive personal impressions of Livadia, on his return to the United States, Roosevelt said that, as he was struck by the Germans destroyed the Crimea. "During my stay in Yalta, I have seen examples of the ruthless and senseless violent destruction which produces German militarism. Do not be spared even the most modest home. I read about Warsaw, Lidice, Rotterdam and Coventry, but I saw Sevastopol and Yalta, and I know what on earth can not exist together German militarism and Christian virtue "- the US president said in a message to Congress following the conference.
Authentic Venetian glass
On the territory of Livadia Palace almost did not survive the furniture, utensils and other household items that were used by the conference participants, and even the interiors of some rooms is not in the form in which they were in 1945.
"During my stay in Yalta, I have seen examples of the ruthless and senseless violent destruction which produces German militarism. Do not be spared even the most modest home. I read about Warsaw, Lidice, Rotterdam and Coventry, but I saw Sevastopol and Yalta, and I know what on earth can not exist together German militarism and Christian virtue "
Franklin Roosevelt. From the message of the US Congress, 1945 "After the conference, the palace was transferred to dachas system, everything was brought into line with the tastes of Stalin, which is after the conference visited a few times and after his death created a sanatorium here.", - says Dmitry Blintsov.
In 1974, the 30th anniversary of the Yalta Conference and are expected to arrive in the USSR US president Richard Nixon on the territory of the sanatorium had the first exhibition. "The conference participants, who else was at that time alive, spoke of the need to allocate several rooms to create an exhibition reflecting the history of the conference, and to tell the people of this historic event, but only in 1993 the Livadia Palace received the status of the museum." - says Blintsov .
Historian shows one of the rooms that has preserved an authentic and not recovered since the appearance of the Yalta Conference. It Ozhidatelnaya room, which is so called since pre-revolutionary times, because it was a place where guests of the royal family were waiting for an audience.
These dark walnut wood panels and a wooden ceiling, a chandelier of Venetian glass, fireplace, chairs and a table - it was here during the Yalta conference. The room was equipped with working in the Roosevelt room, here he twice met with Stalin here and discussed the issue of joining the Soviet Union in the war against Japan, "- explains the historian.
Now Ozhidatelnoy room exhibited wax figures of the "Big Three" - Joseph Stalin, Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill - "Argonauts", they themselves have decided to refer to the filing of Churchill, who compared the participants of the conference with Greek mythology heroes sail to the Black Sea for gold Fleece.
C in the world with hope
The outcome of the Yalta Conference, considered the establishment of the new frontiers of peace and post-war world order and the emergence of a new international institution designed to protect the world order - the United Nations. According to historians, the conference reigned mostly friendly atmosphere, and the parties to exercise mutual respect. "I am confident that the agreements reached at Yalta, Europe will be more stable politically than it ever has been," - said Roosevelt in his message to Congress, said that March 1, 1945.
Franklin Roosevelt during the message to Congress, March 1, 1945
clearly expressed willingness to dialogue in order to achieve the political results, often accompanying this "diplomatic curtsies." So, Roosevelt, Stalin proposed to lead the conference, compromising their right to take sides in favor of the main partner, the Soviet leader saw in Roosevelt.
And during one of the receptions organized by Roosevelt, Stalin told the story of a decision on the establishment in 1933 of diplomatic relations between the US and the USSR. "His wife, Eleanor, after the first election of President Roosevelt traveled around the country and in one of the schools saw the map of the world with large unpainted spot. She explained that it was the Soviet Union, but it is impossible to say. At the reception in Livadia Roosevelt, Stalin said that it was after wife's story about this case, it became clear that it was "a big white spot" can not exist on the map, and that the Soviet Union time to establish diplomatic relations ", - says Blintsov.
According to the historian, the appearance in Yalta in 60 years of the twentieth century, the streets of Roosevelt and the current installation of the bust associated with a tribute to one of the few periods of sincere attempts to improve relations between the Soviet and American sides. And Roosevelt as the US leader at the time was the personification of hope for friendly relations.
The White Hall of Livadia Palace
Uncle Joe, "interference" of communication and the son of a White Guard
Not marred a good relationship between the partners and the different incidents that accompanied the Yalta Conference. Widely known case where a reception Roosevelt described Stalin as he and Churchill called him behind his back, - Uncle Joe (derived from the name of Joseph, that is Joseph in English). There was an awkward situation, but it came out well, as the conflict did not need anyone. There was a case related to the organization of the radio and the American ship anchored in Sevastopol Bay and provides a link with the United States, to which the Americans from Livadia laid in the ground 80 km of cable for the transmission of encrypted messages. "For a long time the cable was interference, and the Americans could not understand what was going on. They suggested that the Russian is connected to it, and warned that if the problem during the day is not removed, then all over cable, they will put their soldiers, who will control it A day later the problem has disappeared ", -. Blintsov says.
Another case was connected with the American delegation, composed of translators which was the son of a White Guard emigre Oleg Pantyukhov, but this fact was discovered already in the Crimea. "The Americans were then told Pantyukhov that he is leaving immediately for the Soviet side demand. This is due to security measures, as the Soviet side could not afford to close with Stalin was the son of a White Guard, ie, unreliable people. I think this is due to including and the fact that in the 20s were shot beloemigrantami Soviet diplomats Vaclav Vorovskii Voikov and Peter, and the Soviet side to remember this, trying to avoid any possibility of an assassination attempt, "- explains the historian.
As a Soviet driver saved FDR
During the Yalta Conference event occurred that could completely change the course of the negotiations and the subsequent history. "Here there was a very serious incident: Members of the US delegation went to Alupka, and here on the way Roosevelt had nearly fallen out of an open car, but the driver of the Soviet Fedor Hodakov had one hand to grab Roosevelt and draw back in the car", - says Blintsov.
yacheslav Molotov, Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt (in the car)
The historian explains that in an open car brand "Willis" was not a door, but it was a safety handrail, specially designed for wheelchair-bound Roosevelt that the US president's bodyguards have probably forgotten to fix. "It is interesting that in the future has not received from the Soviet leadership Hodakov neither encourage nor punishment Yes, Hodakov responsible for Roosevelt, but it was the American bodyguards showed carelessness, why the Soviet leadership decided not to punish the driver." - explains historian.
However, the US president personally thanked the driver, and after Roosevelt's death, his widow Eleanor during a visit to the Soviet Union has asked to find Khodakova and give him thanks for having saved her husband from injury, and possibly more serious consequences.