The history of a man who for six hours getting richer than Bill Gates
• human history, which became richer than Bill Gates for six hours
On the morning of July 27 Amazon.com shares rose 1, 8% due to the good outlook for the company's reporting and its founder Jeff Bezos came in first place among the world's richest people. Just six hours after the close of trading, the stock fell 3%, and Bezos again ceded the title of richest Bill Gates.
We tell what kind of person Jeff Bezos, he resigned in 1994 from a major bank, to sell books on the Internet, and what the "rule of two pizzas", which operates in the Amazon.
On the second place in the ranking of the richest people Bezos was released in late March 2017. Then one day his condition grew by 1, 5 billion dollars. Their status with Gates exceed 90 billion - more than the GDP of Ethiopia and Sri Lanka.
Jeffrey Preston Yorgensenlit was born in 1964. The boy's parents divorced after years of marriage, and later his mother married a Cuban Miguel Bezos. He adopted the future businessman, when he was four years old. A great role in educating Bezos played his maternal grandfather, Lawrence Preston, worked as a regional director of the US Commission on nuclear energy: it was he interested in computers grandson.
Jeff always liked to invent new, repair broken and understand how things are. From childhood he wanted to do space.
The boy invented the stove that runs on sunlight, the hovercraft, and even robots, lasers and electric alarm - the latter worked as a security system, are expelled from the room siblings.
Bezos became the best graduate school and went to Princeton University to study physics, but then she chose computer science and design of electrical systems. Much later, in 2010, Bezos made in the alma mater at the graduation ceremony. He told how his grandmother brought to tears, confessing her smokes. Then my grandfather said to him: "Jeff, one day you will realize that the good to be harder than clever."
Two years Bezos worked in the telecom startup Fitel, and then moved to a large bank Bankers Trust. After that, he worked as a financial analyst in the investment fund D.E. Shaw on Wall Street.
In the fund, he met with McKenzie Tuttle, and they married in 1993.
"Our offices are located directly opposite each other, and for many days I could hear his wonderful laugh. How could I resist? "
At 29 years old Bezos has built a great career: he was the youngest vice president of the foundation D.E.Shaw. However, he got the business idea to the head, he would not be able to implement in a foreign company. Bezos noted that the number of Internet users has increased by 2300% per year, and knew how to use it: he wanted to sell books through the Internet.
First, the books were published in large editions and were identical: they are not required to see before you buy, just look at the summary and the cover. Secondly, most of the books in the United States spread the two major distributors, and entrepreneurs would not have had to work with a lot of individual publishers. Third, in the world of printed books is the amount that an ordinary, off-line store could not keep at many stores.
Now we are witnessing the emergence of the Internet and, if we do it right, the birth of Amazon.com. Today, online trading saves customers money and precious time.
Tomorrow, with the help of personalization, online commerce will accelerate the search process itself. Amazon.com uses the Internet to create real value for its customers, and thus hopes to create a strong brand, even for well-established and large markets. Jeff Bezos
Bezos and his wife moved to Seattle to start his own company. Initially, they have invested in it 300 thousand dollars - money Bezos gave his mother and stepfather. It was the first employee was Kapan. Money for the office was not, and all of Bezos first worked at home, and then took off the basement, the former music studio.
The first desktop Bezos assembled from wooden doors, and so far all the tables in his company - a wooden board attached to the metal legs. Businessman thrifty, and Amazon does not use expensive furniture even in the offices of managers.
Looking ahead: when something is important, it is more than generous. A member of the Amazon Jennifer Cust asked the businessman $ 100 thousand - the fact that it was possible to hold a referendum to permit same-sex marriage in Washington state. Instead, this amount Bezos and his wife (she is now a successful author) sacrificed 2, 5 million dollars. Bezos Family Foundation funded institutions, museums, research centers and educational projects.
Back in the July 16, 1995, when Jeff Bezos launched its website. The first 30 days, he worked without advertising support, but the number of orders on Cadabra.com still growing so fast that the wiring is not withstand the load of the servers and had to use multiple extensions of different outlets. By September weekly revenue was 20 thousand dollars, and the orders went to all the US states and more than 40 other countries.
Besides Cadabra.com addresses from Amazon site was still address Relentless.com. The current name of the company is obliged to the world's largest river Amazon. Amazon has a good word for several reasons: it begins with the first letter of the alphabet, so the company was placed in the first positions of the catalog.
Arrow from the letter A to Z on the logo means that the online Amazon shoppers can find everything from a to z. Bezos dreamed assemble at two editions of each of the printed book in the world, and then - one copy of each product sold in the world. Buyers should be aware that on Amazon.com you can find absolutely everything.
We have invested in almost all commercial Internet projects, scattered during the crisis: pets.com, living.com, kozmo.com ... The only thing that comforts - we were not alone and have spent not so much money. "
Analysts predicted the collapse of the Amazon during the year, especially since the millennium there was the dot-com crisis, when the bankrupt many Internet companies. In September 2001, Amazon shares were trading near five dollars - 20 times less than during the peak in 1996. But the last quarter of the year was profitable - for the first time in the five-year history of the company
And in 2013, 12 years after the Washington Post wrote about the financial difficulties of Amazon founder Bezos simply buy the newspaper for $ 250 million.
Bezos from the beginning is very attentive to hiring each new employee should raise the bar for the rest. It is better to reject the right employee than to hire the wrong. There is a person on the position "raise the bar" that can undo the decision of all other colleagues and not to hire the candidate. The applicant himself does not know which of his interviewers has a veto.
Bezos believes that the need to work on projects small teams. Businessman formulated the rule as follows: "If you can not feed a team with two pizzas, there's too many people." He believes that individual thinking must prevail over the group, and gives responsibility to those who are willing to accept it. The businessman does not tolerate incompetence and may ask a subordinate: "You are lazy or just incompetent? This problem must apply the human mind. " Headed Amazon loyalty is so important that in 2014 he offered to employees from 2000 to 5000 dollars for the dismissal: "The bottom line is that employees think about what they really need. If a person stays for a long time in that company, where he was to be really do not want to, it's not very good for him and for us. "
After a year of work in the shop were CDs, clothes and electronics. Amazon.com now covers more than 30 categories of products: the toys, food, household goods, sports and more. Amazon three decades younger than Wal-Mart, and stands at 120 billion dollars more expensive. According to experts, the total cost of Amazon - more than 350 billion dollars, more than the gross domestic income of Hong Kong.
Ever since childhood, Bezos was an explorer and was fond of space travel. In 2000 he opened the aerospace company Blue Origin, which is expected to reduce the cost of space travel, that it could not afford one.
The same innovative approach he applies to the Amazon device. Logistics company is changing so fast that in two or three years after the opening of the centers have staff seem obsolete. If earlier orders in warehouses collected the staff (which took place for a change of up to 10 kilometers), now in some centers they stand still, and racks to their workplace bring "smart" robots.
In the early 2000s, when Apple created the iPod and online music store the iTunes, for Amazon it has become a threat. Selling music, books and films accounted for almost three-quarters of the revenue of the company and its founder realized that the book business, too, could at any moment to destroy. Then Bezos decided to become a rival to himself and to develop an electronic device for reading - as simple as possible so that they could be used by people who are not tech savvy. Responsible for project Bezos has appointed Steven Kessel, who had previously worked in sales of printed literature. He said, "Steve, I want you to destroy the business that created". And on the issue of timing he replied: "Basically, you're already late." Now Amazon Kindle - one of the major players in the US market of electronic books.
Last Bezos bright idea - the delivery of goods to customers using drones, Amazon Prime Air. The Federal Aviation Administration United States has not yet approved the project, and to the same regulatory laws do not allow the use of drones for commercial purposes, but the businessman still hopes to implement a plan in the next few years.
Bezos loves aggressive competition. When he began to compete with the company Quidsi, which was selling on the internet children's goods, Amazon launched a discount program for young parents and offered customers a much lower price. In 2010, his opponents were forced to a $ 550 million to sell the company Bezos.
News about Amazon sounding one another steeper over the past two years: in September 2015, Jeff Bezos and Mark Zuckerberg for the first time among the top ten richest people in the United States, in July 2016 the net profit for the six months increased by 39 times. However, and on dips figures look as impressive: in October 2016 after reporting Bezos Amazon state fell by $ 3 billion.
Amazon's share price from August 2016 till June 2017. Over the past year the company's shares rose by 40%, and its cost has exceeded $ 500 billion. This result primarily reached only Apple, Alphabet (which is part of Google) and Microsoft. For Jeff Bezos is so interesting to observe that about him began to make popular memes in social networks. Right photo businessman in 1998, which is signed with the words "sale of the book," and on the right in 2017 - with the inscription "I sell everything that I want."
However, after the news that he has ceased to be the richest man in the world, pictures are reversed: now the left, "Jeff Bezos five minutes ago," and the right "Jeff Bezos now."